Is information literacy just a set of skills?

Information literacy is more than just a set of skills. Skills are an individuals ability to do something well, and if information literacy was just an ability, then there would be greater agreement on what information literacy is; on what know-how is required to become information literate and what outcomes are displayed by an information literate person.

There are so many different viewpoints on what it means to be information literate. While investigating the current topic this blogger has found eight different definitions for information literacy. For example, Abilock (2013, p. 1) states Information Literacy is a transformational process in which the learner needs to find, understand, evaluate, and use information in various forms to create for personal, social or global purposes.” Whereas Herring (2004, as sighted in Herring, 2006) defines it as “the skills which pupils use to identify the purpose of, locate, process and communicate information concepts and ideas and then reflect upon the effective application of these skills”. How can information literacy be seen as just a set of skills when there is no clear definition of what it really is?

As the definition of information literacy differs so does the process of becoming information literate also vary. Across the globe there are a range of information literacy models being utilised in schools, from the New South Wales [NSW] model (NSW Department of Education and Training, 2007) currently used in NSW, Australia; the Big 6 model (Eisenberg & Berkowitz, 1990) used in North America, and the PLUS model (Herring, 2004) in the United Kingdom and many more. While some aspects of each model may be similar [each model encompasses locating information as one of its steps] each model cannot even agree on the number of steps required to becoming information literate some state six, others four, some models only contain three steps. With no agreement on how to become information literate how can information literacy be seen as just a set of skills?

Furthermore, with differing views on what information literacy is and on how to go about achieving it, it is not possible to have a centralised viewpoint on what an information literate individual is able to achieve. While the Australian and New Zealand Information Literacy Framework (Bundy, 2004) provides 11 points defining the abilities of an information literate person, these points cover skills such as the ability “to recognise a need for information“, the expertise to “classify, store, manipulate and redraft information collected or generated” and the know-how to “access and use information ethically and legally“. However, due to the extensive number of definitions and models it is impractical to believe that these outcomes will apply to all conditions. Indicating that even the abilities of an information literate person cannot be agreed upon.

In conclusion if information literacy were just an ability to use information well, there would be greater agreement on what information literacy is. Becoming information literate would be a simple, step-by-step process with the fundamentals being embraced by all models across the globe. Finally, the essential skill set of an information literate individual should be similar no matter the framework in place. Due to the lack of consensus it is clear that information literacy is by no means a simple set of skills.


Abilock, D. (2013, 11 22). Information Literacy: Building blocks of research: Overview. Retrieved 01 24, 2014, from NoodleTools:

Bundy, A. (Ed.). (2004). Australian and New Zealand Information Literacy Framework: principles, standards and practice. (2nd ed.). Adelaide: Australian and New Zealand Institute for Information Literacy (ANZIIL) and Council of Australian University Librarians (CAUL).

Eisenberg, M., & Berkowitz, R. E. (1990). What is the Big 6? Retrieved 01 24, 2014, from Information and Technology Skills for Student Success:

Herring, J. (2006, Sep 27). A critical investigation of students’ and teachers’ views of the use of information literacy skills in school assignments. School Library Media Research, 9

Herring, J. (2004). The PLUS model. Retrieved from

New South Wales Department of Education and Training. (2007). Information skills in the school. Retrieved 01 24, 2014, from Curriculum programs and support:

Using evidence-based practice to promote teacher librarian services.

Thanks to the increasing influence of technology it is now easier than ever to gather information, and therefore extremely important that teacher librarians [TLs] promote their usefulness to their fellow teachers, their principal and members of their school community [cite]. Not only is the promotion of library services a part of the ‘Standards of professional excellence for teacher librarians’ (Australian Library and Information Association & Australian School Library Association, 2012) to which all excellent TLs should aspire; but it also increases awareness of their abilities, enhancing collaboration requests which is well documented as having a significant impact on learning (Fullan, 1999; Gibbs, 2003; Farmer, 2007; Haycock, 2007; Morris, 2007; Todd, The dynamics of classroom teacher and teacher librarian instructional collaborations, 2008). This is why early implementation of evidence-based practice by TLs is so vital.

What is evidence-based practice? According to Todd (2003) and Lamb & Johnson, (2013) evidence-based practice is ‘the process of documenting how a teacher librarian [TL] makes a difference in student learning’, by recording the effectiveness of library initiatives a teacher librarian demonstrates their significance to student learning which may help increase their influence within the school.

How can evidence-based practice be incorporated practically? Firstly, recording the amount of money raised for the school as the result of a book fair, or the number of potential parents who visited library events organised by a TL documents the effectiveness of library promotions. It is simple to measure the difference a TL makes to a program or a unit of study when they have had direct involvement. Lamb & Johnson (2013) provides a great example ‘count the use of proper citations in presentations a few days after a mini-lesson on citing sources’, this demonstrates how easy it is to document TL impact from everyday interactions with student.

However, the multi-faceted role of the TL means that differences that they make to the learning will not always be from direct interaction with students. An example of indirect involvement from a TL; a TL provides in-service training to fellow staff members on web 2.0 resources, this enables teachers to incorporate them into their classrooms thus setting the stage for increased student engagement. In this example a TL can provide evidence or both direct [in-service training] and indirect influence [its subsequent utilization in the classroom]. Questionnaires are a great way to obtain evidence of both measures, providing staff a questionnaire after in-service training asking them to indicate ‘what they learned’ (Todd, Irrefutable evidence: How to prove you boost student achievement, 2003), and then providing a follow-up questionnaire a week or more after training asking staff who has incorporated their new skills in the classroom provides documentation of the TLs impact. Alternatively, a TL has evaluated some of the schools’ resources, determined that they no longer meet current standards and has arranged for them to be replaced. Asking teachers to document the quality of resources utilized by students in presentations both before and after improvements were made, provides evidence for the indirect influence on student learning.

In conclusion, it is more important than ever for TLs to promote the differences that they make to learning and to the school community. By incorporating evidence-based practice a TL is able to provide tangible proof of their value to the school, and promote services that may otherwise be underutilized.


Australian Library and Information Association & Australian School Library Association. (2012, Dec 10). Standards of professional excellence for teacher librarians. Retrieved Dec 1, 2013, from Australian School Library Association:

Farmer, L. (2007). Principals: Catalysts for collaboration. School Libraries Worldwide , 12 (1), 56-65.

Fullan, M. (1999). Deep meaning of inside collaboration. In Change forces: the sequel (pp. 31-41). London: Falmer Press.

Gibbs, R. (2003). Reframing the role of the teacher librarian: the case for collaboration and flexibility. Scan , 22 (3), 4-7.

Haycock, K. (2007). Collaboration: Critical success factors for student learning. School Libraries Worldwide , 13 (1), 25-35.

Lamb, A., & Johnson, L. (2013). Library media program: Evidence-based decisionmaking. Retrieved Jan 6th, 2014, from The School Media Specialist:

Morris, B. J. (Ed.). (2007). Principal support for collaboration. School Libraries Worldwide , 13 (1), 23-24.

Todd, R. J. (2008). The dynamics of classroom teacher and teacher librarian instructional collaborations. Scan , 27 (2), 19-28.

Todd, R. J. (2003, April 1). Irrefutable evidence: How to prove you boost student achievement. Retrieved Jan 16, 2013, from School Library Journal:

What is wrong with education today?

Meme sent to me on Facebook.

Meme sent to me on Facebook.

What is wrong with education today? and how are you going to fix it?

This is a question that was posed to me by a Baby Boomer family member at Christmas and I admit at first I was caught off guard. Feeling as though it was the beginning of an attack on my chosen profession. But once we started talking, I quickly realised what my answer is. I believe that the problem is…


Gone are the days when a good education was valued and teachers were respected. Last year I was a casual at a number of schools, and thinking back on my time I realise that many of the behavioural or learning challenges that I faced with students came from the students not caring about their learning. They didn’t see the value in education, didn’t see how it was going to benefit them, and therefore why should they bother? Why should they listen to you? What impact could you have in their lives? and it didn’t always just come from the kids.

There are parents out there who, without intending too, started this process. Either through what they have said or not said or done or not done. Somewhere along the line they have given the impression that it is ok for other things to have a higher priority in their life. For example, it is ok to play the xbox/wii/computer/Playstation/tablet rather than do your homework or practice your reading, writing or any other skills that they need to work on; it is ok to not do your homework today, you can just do it tomorrow; or simply not asking at all, it is one thing for your child to be independent, it is another for them to just be left to their own devices.

Then when the reports come around, these parents and students are faced with poor results and society blames the teacher. No one takes a look at the effort was put in. Those students who succeed will always be the ones who put in the effort, who work hard and strive to do better. For those students it is often the parent who has placed value on education, who has instilled within them a respect for their teachers. Therefore, instilling within them with the values that they were given as a chid, as were their parents before them and their parents before them etc

So what am I going to do about it? well I intend to show students the value of education; explain why we are learning what we are learning, why we are doing what we are doing, how will these skills impact their lives in the future. For it is my hope that if the value of an education is increased then so will the education system.